Applied Methods and Methodology in Cross Cultural Research, POSTPONED TO 2022


More information will be posted later

Time and place: October 18th to 22nd 2021, University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland

Learning goal and objectives:

Due to globalization and higher international trade volumes there is an increasing trend in management research to conduct cross-cultural, cross-national and cross-disciplinary studies. Methods and methodology for comparative studies, however, require special knowledge and special skills. Researchers involved in cross-cultural research projects need to be familiar with the cross-cultural research methods and even be able to create novel methods and techniques in order to increase the validity, reliability, and trustworthiness of cross-cultural research. The empirical design becomes even more complicated, when studies are conducted in transitional and developing economies.

The course provides knowledge in:

  • Designing theory based cross-cultural/ international studies
  • Conducting cross-cultural research
  • Quantitative and qualitative cross-cultural comparative methodology
  • Doing cross-cultural collaborative research
  • Doing research in transitional and developing economies
  • Doing research outside your own home country

After the course the participants are familiar with relevant methodological literature on cross-cultural methods. They are able to use the literature as a guideline for their own methodological choices. The participants will understand the difficulties but also the opportunities of conducting cross-cultural research. The participants will receive knowledge, understanding and preparedness to independently develop skills in conducing empirical cross-cultural research.

Instruction and examination:

Credits: 6 ECTS 

In order to pass the course you are required to

  • Read literature for each session (see the preliminary program)
  • Be active during the sessions
  • Send in for all participants one page research proposal with emphasis on methods ONE week before the start of the course
  • Prepare 3 ppt slides for your brief research proposal presentation in the beginning of the course, include a figure summarizing your project
  • Hand in a revised research proposal focusing on cross-cultural methods one month after the course that reflects ALL the course literature (articles, books, and slides) as well as other information given during the course (ca. 15 pages)

In order to get credits you need to pass all the above parts of the course

Grading: 1-5

Prerequisites: Doctoral students and post doctoral researchers who are conducting or are aiming to conduct comparative cross-national/cultural or international research. The participants should be doctoral students or faculty members of universities of KATAJA or cooperation partners of KATAJA.

Admittance: Maximum 25 participants will be accepted to the course


  • Professor Hartmut H. Holzmueller, TU Dortmund University, Germany: Culture theory, multi-centric team management, experiences from cross-cultural research, qualitative/ explorative research methodology. Harmut Holzmueller - Academic Website
  • Professor Edwin Nijssen, Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands: Research designs, use of borrowed scales, experiences from cross-cultural research. Edwin Nijssen - Academic Website
  • Professor Thomas Salzberger, Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien, Austria: Measurement theory, emic and etic methodology, quantitative/ confirmative cross-cultural research. Thomas Salzbergger - Academic Website

Course coordinator and contact information:

The course coordinator is Professor Jorma Larimo ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ) and for practical arrangements, please, be in contact with Ha Nguyen ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ) at the School of Marketing and Communication of the University of Vaasa.

Reference Lists:

Andersen, P.H., Skaates, M.A. (2004). Ensuring Validity in Qualitative International Business Research.Welch, C., Marschan-Piekkari, R. (Eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research Methods for International Business. Edward Elgar Publishing, p. 464-485.

Briley, D. A., & Aaker, J. L. (2006). When does culture matter? Effects of personal knowledge on the correction of culture-based judgments. Journal of Marketing Research, 43(3), 395-408.

Douglas, S.P., & Craig, C.S. (2006). On Improving the Conceptual Foundations of International Marketing Research, Journal of International Marketing, 14(1), 1-22.

Douglas, S. P., & Nijssen, E. J. (2003). On the use of “borrowed” scales in cross-national research: A cautionary note. International Marketing Review, 20(6), 621-642.

Easterby-Smith, M., Malina, D. (1999). Cross-Cultural Collaborative Research: Toward Reflexivity. Academy of Management Journal, 42(1), 76-86.

Ewing, MT., Salzberger, T., & Sinkovics, R.R. (2005). An Alternate Approach to Assessing Cross-Cultural Measurement Equivalence in Advertising Research. Journal of Advertising, 34 (1), 17–36.

Kostova, T., & Roth, K. (2002). Adoption of an organizational practice by subsidiaries of multinational corporations: Institutional and relational effects. Academy of management journal, 45(1), 215-233.

McGrath, H., & O’Toole, T. (2014). A cross-cultural comparison of the network capability development of entrepreneurial firms. Industrial Marketing Management 43, 897-910.

Punnett, B.J., Ford, D., Galperin, B. L. & Lituchy, T. (2017). The Emic-Etic-Emic Research Cycle. AIB Insights 17(1), 3-6.

Samaha, S. A., Beck, J. T., & Palmatier, R. W. (2014). The Role of Culture in International Relationship Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 78(September), 78-98.

Salmi, A. (2011). International research teams and collective case studies: an abductive approach,  Piekkari, R. ,  Welch C. (Eds.) Rethinking the case study in international business and management research, Edwards Elgar Publishing, p. 431-451.

Salzberger, T., & Koller, M. (2013): Towards a new paradigm of measurement in marketing. Journal of Business Research, 66 (2013) 1307–1317.

Salzberger, T., Newton, F.J., & Ewing, M.T. (2014). Detecting gender item bias and differential manifest response behavior: A Rasch-based solution. Journal of Business Research, 67 (2014) 598–607.

Schaffer, B. S., & Riordan, C. M. (2003). A review of cross-cultural methodologies for organizational research: A best-practices approach. Organizational Research Methods, 6(2), 169-215.

Sinkovics, R.R., Penz, E., Ghauri, P.N. (2008). Enhancing the Trustworthiness of Qualitative Research in International Business. MIR, 48(6), 689-714.

Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict, and Hans Baumgartner (1998), “Assessing Measurement Invariance in Cross-National Consumer Research,” Journal of Consumer Research, 25 (1), 78–90.

Steenkamp, J. B. E., Hofstede, F. T., & Wedel, M. (1999). A cross-national investigation into the individual and national cultural antecedents of consumer innovativeness. The Journal of Marketing, 55-69.

Taras, V., Kirkman, B. L., & Steel, P. (2010). Examining the impact of Culture's consequences: A three-decade, multilevel, meta-analytic review of Hofstede's cultural value dimensions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(3), 405.

Taras, V., Rowney, J., Steel, P. (2009). Half a century of measuring culture: Review of approaches, challenges, and limitations based on the analysis of 121 instruments for quantifying culture. Journal of International Management, 15, 357-373.

Teagarden et al. (1995). Toward a theory of comparative management research: An idiographic case study of the best international human resources management project. Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 1261-1287.

Watkins, L. (2010). The cross-cultural appropriateness of survey-based value(s) research. International Marketing Review, 27(6), 694-716.

Welch et al. (2011). Theorising from case studies: Towards a pluralist future for international business research. Journal of International Business Studies, 42, 740-762.

Wulf, K. D., Odekerken-Schröder, G., & Iacobucci, D. (2001). Investments in consumer relationships: a cross-country and cross-industry exploration. Journal of marketing, 65(4), 33-50.

Yaprak, A. (2008). Culture study in international marketing: a critical review and suggestions for future research. International Marketing Review, 25(2), 215-229.



Preliminary Programme






Learning objectives/ tasks



Jun 14th





Welcoming words

Brief round of introduction (instructors and participants) - Poster Session

Starting lecture: Defining cross cultural research

  1. Introduction to the international /cultural domain
  2. Explanation of the course structure and topics

Slot A: Short presentations of participant projects - Beginners (max. 3 ppt slides, e.g. Background

 +gap/RQ; Theory/perspective; Method/ Empirical steps; Cultural challenge you face)

Research proposals

Creating cultural awareness/ sensitivity


Holzmueller, Nijssen, Salzberger


Jun 15th  




First step: Specification of international focus

  1. Culture,
  2. Perennial problems,
  3. 8 steps framework to solid cross-cultural research

Slot B: Short presentations of participant projects – Advanced students (max. 3 ppt slides, e.g.

 Background +gap/RQ; Theory/perspective; Method/ Empirical steps; Cultural challenge you face)

Singh, Nijssen, and Holzmüller (2006);

Taras, Rowney, and Steel (2009)

Create awareness for culture, and providing a process framework of cross-cultural research 



Tea and coffee




Second step:  Conceptualization/ Operationalization of international domain, typology  of  culture related research

Wulf, Odekerken-Schröder, and Iacobucci (2001); Steenkamp, ter Hofstede and Wedel (1999);

Samaha, Beck, and Palmatier (2014)

Create awareness for the difference between cross-national versus cross-cultural research







Slot C: Short presentations of participant projects - Advanced students (max. 3 ppt slides, e.g.

 Background +gap/RQ; Theory/perspective; Method/ Empirical steps; Cultural challenge you face)


Tea and coffee




Third and fourth step: Modeling of international & substantive mechanism/ Inclusion of competing explanations & effects

  1. Multicultural minds experiments
  2.  Institutional theory 

Yaprak (2008);

Briley and Aaker (2006); Kostova and Roth (2002)

When does culture matter?

Familiarize participants with alternative approaches to comparative research in the international arena.




Workshop: Conceptualization of culture and identification of a theoretical basis for participant projects and doctoral work

Please, discuss and prepare in teams a revision of your research proposal which reflects the input of the prior sessions of the day (steps 1 to 3)


Applicability to my own research




Course dinner (On your own cost)



Jun 16th



Fifth step: Implementation of cultural sensitivity and fighting hidden bias/ Research paradigms in cross-cultural research

  1. Emic, etic; anthropology/ethnography vs. management/market oriented ethnography
  2. Combined emic-etic
  3. Pseudo etic (borrowed scales)

Taras, Kirkman, and Steel (2010);

Schaffer and Riordan (2003);

Douglas and Nijssen (2003)

Increase emic sensitivity and sensibility



Tea and coffee




Sixth step: Handling substantive differences and idiosyncrasies/  Multinational collaborate research

Easterby-Smith & Malina (1999); Teagarden et al. (1995), Salmi (2011)

Bagire and Punnett (2017)

Create awareness for challenges and pitfalls in international research teams.




Seventh step: Qualitative field work and data collection (Basics)

Watkins (2010);

Welch et al. (2010);

McGrath & O’Toole (2014)

Create understanding of weaknesses and strengths in doing research in alien cultures







Seventh step:  Quantitative  field work and data collection execution (Basics)

 Douglas and Craig (2006); Hult et al. (2008);

Salzberger et al. (2009);

McKenna et al. (2013)

Track B: Create basic understanding of  equivalence concepts and the resulting complexity of doing quantitative research cross-culturally



Tea and coffee




Seventh step:  Cross-cultural field work and data collection execution (Advanced issues)  – Qualitative paradigm  (Track A)

Eighth step: The role of culture in quantitative data analysis I: Assessment of measurement equivalence (Traditional test theory, Factor Analysis) (Track B)

Track A: Watkins (2010);

Welch et al. (2010);

McGrath & O’Toole (2014)

Belk, Ger, and Askegaard (1997)

Track A: Create an advanced understanding of weaknesses and strengths in doing research in alien cultures

A: Holzmueller

Track B: Schaffer and Riordan (2003); Steenkamp and Baumgartner (1998); Salzberger and Sinkovics (2006)

Track B: Create basic understanding of the concept of measurement equivalence and the standard method to assess comparability

B: Salzberger



Workshop: Re-thinking research designs for participants’ projects / doctoral work


Applicability to my own research



Jun 17th



Eighth step: Equivalence assessment and data analyses after data collection – Qualitative

(Track A)

Eighth step: The role of culture in quantitative data analysis II: Assessment of measurement equivalence (Modern test theory Theory)

(Track B)

Track A : Sinkovics, Penz, and Ghauri (2008); Andersen and Skaates (2004)

Track A: Create understanding of and preparedness for comparability and potential of qualitative data in cross-cultural research

A: Holzmueller

Track B: Salzberger and Sinkovics (2006); Ewing, Salzberger and Sinkovics (2005); Singh (2004); Baumgartner and  Steenkamp (2001), Salzberger and Koller (2013)

Track B: Create basic understanding of alternative methods to assess comparability

Learn how culture can be incorporated in quantitative analysis

B. Salzberger


Tea and coffee




Workshop: Review and assessment of good practice studies in explorative cross-cultural research (Track A)

Eighth step: The role of culture in quantitative data analysis III:  Actual consideration of equivalence in empirical research. Modeling culture in a structural model;

Addressing measurement equivalence in the course participants’ projects (Track B)

Track A:  Punnett, Ford, Galperin and Lituchy 2017, McGrath & O’Toole (2014)


Track A: Develop skills which allow identifying strength and weaknesses of published work.

A: Holzmueller

Track B: He, Merz, and Alden (2008);

Track B: Applicability to course participants’ projects

B. Salzberger






Group discussion/ Workshop I:  Revision of individual research proposals which reflect the insights gained through the lectures and discussions in Track A

Please, discuss and prepare in teams a further advanced version of your research proposal. Present and discuss it with the peer group.

Eighth step: Workshop: Applicability to your own research project, Assessment of measurement equivalence using a data set from an empirical study (Track B)


Track A: Use peers and the whole group of participants to further advance research designs of doctoral work

A: Holzmueller

Track B: Practice assessment of measurement equivalence

B: Salzberger


Tea and coffee




Group discussion/ Workshop II:  Revision of individual research proposals which reflect the insights gained through the lectures and discussions in Track A 

Workshop: Review and assessment of good practice studies in confirmative cross-cultural research (Track B)


Track A: Use peers and the whole group of participants to further advance research designs of doctoral work

A: Holzmueller


Track B: Develop skills which allow identifying strength and weaknesses of published work

B. Salzberger


Jun 18th



Future steps: Emerging themes in cross-cultural marketing research


Create awareness for new concepts and research trends with regard  to cultural research (Heterogeneity, individual multi-culturalism, cultural constructivism)



Tea and coffee





Workshop in small groups in 3x45 minutes carrousel format, allowing student to discuss take

home aspects for their PhD proposals

Closing the course


Holzmueller, Nijssen, Salzberger,